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Byzantine Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
















Fresco, Judgment on the Idolaters, 3rd century AD, Dura-Europos Synagogue. National Museum of Syria, Damascus.
Romano-Byzantine bowl with the triumph of Constantius II, 4th century, State Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg
Romano-Byzantine soldiers in the Roman Virgil, 5th century. Vatican, MS Vat. lat. 3867
Byzantine textile. Ornamental Square from a Tunic, with mounted hunters , Egypt, 5th century, Cleveland Museum of Art, 1916.1980.
Byzantine textile. Fragment of a Tunic, with mounted lancers, Egypt, 5th - 7th century, Cleveland Museum of Art 1982.288.
March and April. Byzantine Mosaic of the Months, 6th Century. Argos Archaeological Museum, Greece.
Roman and Byzantine Scale Armour by Steven Lowe
Byzantine soldiers on the Throne of Archbishop Maximian of Ravenna, Constantinople or Alexandria, 545–553AD
Justinian as world conqueror. The Barberini Ivory, Byzantine, mid-sixth century
Byzantine Horse on a textile, 6th century, The Walters Art Museum
St Theodore, Icon from the Monastery of St Catherine, Mt Sinai, Byzantine, 6th-century
Romano-Byzantine Soldiers on the Sitten Pyxis, Ivory, 6th Century, Museum of Valere, Sitten
Pyxis Showing Scenes from the Story of the Three Youths of Babylon, Byzantine, 6th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, W-7
Pyxis Showing Scenes from the Story of Joseph, Byzantine, 6th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, W-8
Pyxis Showing Scenes from the Martyrdom and Sanctuary of St Menas, Byzantine, 6th century. British Museum, 1879,1220.1
The Rabbula Gospels Evangelia characteribus Syriacis exarata Northern Syria, 586AD, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Firenze. Plut.01.56
6th-7th century Romans in the Ashburnham Pentateuch, BnF MS NAL 2334
Byzantine or Lombard Armoured Cavalryman on a plate from Isola Rizza, late 6th-early 7th centuries AD
Byzantine Soldiers & Draco Standard on Terracotta Icons, Vinica, Macedonia, 6th or 7th century. Museum of Macedonia, Skopje.
Byzantine plates with biblical characters in Byzantine costume & armour of the reign of Herakleios, early 7th century
The Sacrifice of Jephthah's Daughter - Coptic Icon in the Monastery of St. Catherine, Sinai, Egypt, 6th-8th century
Victorious Emperor. Coptic-Byzantine Ivory Relief, 7th century. The Walters Art Museum.
The Syriac Bible of Paris, BnF MS. Syriaque 341, Syria or Turkey, 7th Century
Extracts from and sources for Armies of the Dark Ages 600-1066 by Ian Heath
Fresco from Hagios Demetrios, Thessalonika, 7-8th century
Arab, Syrian or Byzantine Horse Archers on silk, 7th-9th Centuries
Mount Athos Psalter, MS. Pantocrator 61, Byzantine, first half of the 9th century
Byzantine Psalter, Bibliothèque nationale de France MS. Grec 20, 9th century
Chludov Psalter, Byzantine, Moscow, Historical Museum MS 129, 9th century
Sacra Parallela, Byzantine, 9th century, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS. Grec 923
The Book of Job, Old Testament, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana MS. gr. 749, Byzantine, 9th century
Commentaries of Gregory of Nazianzus, Byzantine, 879-883AD, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS. Grec 510
Byzantine Weaponry and Military Equipment in the Homilies of St Gregory of Nazianzus (Paris, Gr. 510) by Valeri Yotov
Illustrations referenced by Byzantine Armies 886-1118 by Ian Heath & Angus McBride
Kremasmata, Kabadion, Klibanion:, Some aspects of middle Byzantine military equipment reconsidered by Timothy Dawson
The Rome or David Casket, Byzantine, 898 or 900AD
Byzantine Soldiers in the Joshua Roll, Codex Vaticanus Pal. Graec. 431, 10th century
Byzantine cavalry on the Troyes Casket, Cathedral Saint-Peter Saint-Paul, Troyes, France, 945-949AD
A Byzantine Manuscript of the Iliad, including kite shields, 10th century. BNM Mss. Gr.Z.454. Marcian Library, Venice.
Scenes from the Book of Joshua from a Byzantine Casket, 10th Century, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
David and Goliath, Paris Psalter, Byzantine, 10th century, Bibliothèque nationale de France, MS. gr. 139
Byzantine Warrior Saints in Dovecote Church, Cavusin, Cappadocia, Turkey, mid-10th century
Byzantine Fresco of Saint Ieron, 10th century. Tokali Kilise (Buckle Church), Göreme, Cappadocia, Turkey.
A Byzantine Plaque with Scenes from the Book of Joshua, 2nd half of 10th century, Victoria and Albert Museum
Byzantine Icon of Saint Demetrios, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, second half of 10th century
Archers in a Fresco of the Pursuit of Elizabeth, 970-980 AD, Byzantine, Chapel of St. Eustace, Göreme, Cappadocia, Turkey.
"Bamberger Gunthertuch", a Byzantine silk tapestry depicting John I Tzimiskes, with standard, 970s. Treasury of the Bamberg Cathedral.
Menologion of Basil II, Byzantine, c.1000AD, Códice Vaticano Griego 1613
The Adoption of Byzantine Equipment and Customs by the Varangian Guards by Steven Lowe
A Warrior with a ‘Danish Axe’ in a Byzantine Ivory Panel by Peter Beatson
A Byzantine Casket, 10th-11th century, Musée National du Moyen Âge, Paris, France
Byzantine Frescoes of Saints George and Merkourios, Church of Aghios Yeorgios, Belisarama, Cappadocia, Turkey, 10th-11th century
Byzantine Fresco of Saint George, Sümbüllü kilise, Hasan Dağı, Cappadocia, Turkey, 10th-11th century
Byzantine Bone Casket with Warriors and Mythological Figures, 10th-11th Centuries, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 17.190.237.
Arab? Swordsman in round hat and trousers, Byzantine Relief, 10th-11th century. Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.
The Chest Harness Known as the 'Varangian Bra' by Stephen Francis Wyley
Illustrations referenced by Byzantine Imperial Guardsmen 925-1025: The Tághmata and Imperial Guard by Timothy Dawson
The Varangian Rhomphaia- A Cautionary Tale by Tim Dawson
The Betrayal: Military Iconography and Archaeology in the Byzantine Paintings of the 11th-15th c. AD Representing the Arrest of Our Lord Raffaele D’Amato
Saints Mercurios, Theodore Tiron, Demetrios and Prokopius as military saints, Hosios Loukas Monastery, Boeotia, Greece, early 11th century
Manuscript Illustration of Iohannes, a 'Proximos' with the court rank of 'Protospathários'. Armenian Adrianople Gospel, c. 1007, Mechitarist Library, Venice.
Byzantine Fresco of Saints Mardarios & Orestes, Kılıçlar kuşluk, Göreme, Cappadocia, Turkey, early–11th century
The Portrait Illumination of Basil II Bulgaroctonos in his Psalter, Byzantine, c.1017. Cod. Marc. gr. 17. f3r.
A Byzantine Ivory Casket, Victoria and Albert Museum 247:1, 2-1865, early 11th century
Saint Demetrios, Steatite, Byzantine, early 11th century. Louvre OA 3969.
St Procopius in the lamellar with two rivets, Constantinople, 1030AD, MS A648, p. 60r, National Centre of Manuscripts of Georgia
The Betrayal, Nea Moni, Chios, mosaic of the inner Narthex, Byzantine, 1043 AD
Two Warriors on Horseback on a Casket Lid, Byzantine, mid 11th century. Victoria & Albert Museum No: A.542:1-1910.
Byzantine Mosaic depicting the soldier, Longinus, in the Nea Moni Church, Chios, Greece, c.1050AD
Byzantine Fresco of Jesus Being Lead with a Rope, mid–11th century, Elmalı Kilise (Apple Church), Göreme, Cappadocia, Turkey
A Byzantine Plaque of Saint Theodore as a soldier, 11th century. British Museum AN265591001.
Naval battle in the Cynegetica of Pseudo-Oppian, Byzantine, 11th century. Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana Ms Grec 479, Venice
A Siege in the Cynegetica of Pseudo-Oppian, Byzantine, 11th century. Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana Ms Grec 479, Venice.
Horsemen in The Life of St Alessio in the Church of San Clemente, Rome, Italy, 11th Century
Bristol Psalter, Byzantine, 11th century. British Library, Add. MS 40731, London.
Details of Psiloi from a Byzantine Casket, Hermitage Museum St. Petersburg, Ѡ-18, 11th century
Varangian? centurion and gambling soldiers, with kite shields, Byzantine Crucifixion Icon (Goldene Tafel), 11th century. Wittelsbacher Ausgleichsfonds, Munich.
Saint George on a Steatite Icon, Byzantine, Vatopedi monastery, Athos, Greece, 11th Century
Steatite Icon of St Theodore Stratelates, Byzantine, 11th Century. Biblioteca Apostolica, Vatican.
The Betrayal, Balleq Kilise, Cappadocia, Byzantine, 11th Century
Byzantine Fresco of Saint Orestes, Karanlık kilise, Göreme, Cappadocia, Turkey, mid–11th century
Byzantine Fresco of Crucifixion, Karanlık kilise, Göreme, Cappadocia, Turkey, mid–11th century
Byzantine Fresco Crucifixion, Elmalı Kilise, Göreme, Cappadocia, Turkey, mid–11th century
Casket Showing Heracles, Centaurs and Musicians, Byzantine, 11th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Ѡ-20
Byzantine Psalter, 1058-59AD. Biblioteca Apostolica, Vatican, Vat. gr. 752 Part 2.
A Greek-Fire Projector in Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1605, Byzantine, 11th century.
The Books of Kings, Old Testament, Byzantine, mid-11th century. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana MS. gr. 333.
Psalter of Theodore of Caesarea, Byzantine, 1066AD. British Library Add MS 19352
Soldier in a Byzantine Lectionary, third quarter of the eleventh century. Detail from Vaticana Graec, folio 248r.
Codex Mt. Athos Esphigmenou 14, Byzantine, c.1065-1085AD
David and Goliath, Byzantine Psalter, 1084AD. Dumbarton Oaks MS 3, BZ.1962.35.
Greek Gospel book, Byzantine, late 11th - early 12th century. Biblioteca Laurenziana, Florence (Plut. 6.23).
Barlaam and Ioasaph, The Holy Monastery of Iveron, Mount Athos, Byzantine Greece, Codex. 463, c.1075-1125AD
Turkic cavalry on a Byzantine Ivory Casket, 11-12th Centuries. Victoria and Albert Museum A.8-1937.
Triptych Showing the Forty Martyrs, Byzantine, late 11th - early 12th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, W-299
Icon of Warrior Saints George, Theodore and Demetrius, Byzantine, Late 11th - early 12th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, I-183
Slate Icon of Saints George and Demetrius, Byzantine, Late 11th - early 12th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, X-103
Saint Demetrius or Saint George, Byzantine Steatite Icon, 11th or 12th Century
Warrior Saints, Serpent (Yilanli) Church, Göreme, Byzantine, 11th-12th centuries
Byzantine Bowl Fragment with Cavalryman, 11th-12th Centuries. Found on the Crimean Peninsula. Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.
Byzantine Steatite Icon of St. George, 11th-12th Centuries. Bargello Museum, Florence, Italy.
David and Goliath. Bodleian Library MS Barocci 15, f.343r. Byzantine, 1105AD.
Greek Psalter, Byzantine, 12th century. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rome, Vat.gr.1927
Saints Theodore, George and Demetrius on a Steatite, Cherson, Byzantine, early 12th century
Frankish, Saracen & Byzantine costume in the 'Melisende Psalter', 1131-43 AD
Barberini Psalter, Byzantine 12th century. Biblioteca Apostolica, Vatican MS Barb. gr. 372, folio 8r.
Plates depicting the Byzantine folk hero, Digenis Akritas, 12th century
Scylitzes Chronicle, Codex Græcus Matritensis Ioannis Skyllitzes, Byzantine Italy, c.12th Century
Bowl with the Ascension of Alexander the Great, Byzantine, 12th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, W-72
Dish with the Ascension of Alexander the Great, Byzantine, 12th century. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, W-1501
David and Goliath, Byzantine Psalter, Palestine or Cyprus, 12th century. BL Add MS 40753
Saint George on an alabaster plaque, Byzantine, 12th century. Archaeological Museum inv. 1000, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
Byzantine Ivory Casket with Soldiers, 12th century. Bode Museum, Germany, DSC03515.
Soldiers in an 'Octateuch'. Byzantine, 12th century. Codex Vaticanus Pal. Graec. 746, Biblioteca Apostolica, Vatican.
Oval cameo of glass paste, with a representation of St Dimitrios. Byzantine, Constantinople, c. 12th century. The Benaki Museum, Athens, Greece.
Crossing of the Red Sea, Byzantine Psalter, c.1150AD. National Library of Greece MS 7.
Guards at the Tomb. Bible, Byzantine, 12th century. Bibliothèque nationale de France Grec 74, folio 60r - upper.
Hunter on a Byzantine Ivory Plaque, 12th century. Cathedral Treasury, Lyon.
Portrait of Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos and his consort Maria, Constantinople, 1166AD. Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Vat. gr. 1176.
Carved Column Capitals in the Cloister of Monreale Cathedral near Palermo in Sicily, 1174 to 1182 AD
Frescoes of military saints in the Agioi Anargyroi basilica at Kastoria, late 12th century
Frescoes in the Nicholas tou Kasnitzi church at Kastoria, late 12th century
Frescoes in the Enkleistra (cave church) of St. Neophytos, Paphos, Cyprus, 1182-1196AD
Byzantine style figures on a lamp or burner in shape of domed building, Sicily or Southern Italy, late 12th century. Treasury of San Marco, Venice.
Fresco of Joshua, Hosios Loukas (St. Lucas) monastery in Boeotia, Greece, 12th-13th century
Saints George & Theodore Stratelates on the Freiburgh Leaf, Crusader States, c.1200AD
Saint Theodore Tyro, Byzantine Wooden Icon, Patmos Monastery, Greece, 1200AD
Fresco of Saint Bacchus, Church of Deir Mar Musa al-Habashi, Nabk, Syria, portrayed as a Byzantine cavalryman, 1208-9AD
Byzantine soldiers in a fresco of the Betrayal, Church of Saint John Chrisostomos in Arabissos (Karsi Kilise, Suves), Nicaean Byzantine, c.1212 AD
Icon of Saint Demetrius, Byzantine, Thessaloniki, 1204 - 1224AD. State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, W-1132
Fragment of a Byzantine Bowl with a Horse and Rider with Mace, 1200–1268AD, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1984.181
Plaster Relief of Seljuq, Byzantine or Armenian Cavalry Fighting a Dragon & a Lion, 12th-14th centuries. Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts, Sultanahmet.
Byzantine Relief Icon of St George the Cappadocian, Kastoria, Latin Greece, mid 13th Century. Byzantine and Christian Museum ΒΧΜ 01108.
Bible of St. John of Acre. 1250-1254AD, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, Ms-5211 réserve
A cavalry soldier in an icon of Saint George and the boy from Mytilene, Byzantine, 13th Century, British Museum 1984,0601.1
Provincial Byzantine Book of Job, 13th Century. Bodleian Library MS. Barocci 201
Fresco of the Centurion at the Crucifixion, Katholikon at the monastery of Panagia Mavriotissa, Kastoria, Greece, c.1260AD
The Betrayal, Panaghia Chrysafitissa, Laconia, Greece, Byzantine, 1289AD
The 'Sleeping Guards at the Sepulchre' in the Church of Saint Nicolaos in Prilep, Macedonia, c. 1289 AD.
The 'Betrayal' in the Church of Saint Nicolas in Prilep, Macedonia, c. 1289 AD.
Byzantine Fresco of Saint George, 1284–1295AD. Alti Kilise (Kirk Dam), Belisirma, Ihlara Valley, Cappadocia, Turkey.
Mural of Saint Mercurius (as a Byzantine or Serbian Soldier) in Ohrid, Macedonia, c.1295AD
Triptych wing with St Theodore Stratelates, Byzantine, Thessaly, 13th - 14th century AD
Equestrian Saint Demetrius, Byzantine Steatite Icon, 13-14th Century. Kremlin, Moscow
Byzantine Soldiers at the tomb, in Saint John Chrysostom Church, Geraki, Morea, Greece, c.1300AD
Equestrian St. George in Saint John Chrysostom Church, Geraki, Morea, Greece, c.1300AD
St. Demetrius, Byzantine Mural, in Saint John Chrysostom Church, Geraki, Morea, Greece, c.1300AD
St. Demetrios, Fresco, Monastery of the Forty Martyrs, Lakedaemona, Byzantine Morea, Greece, 1304/5 AD.
Gold Seal (bulla) of Thomas, Despot of Epiros, c.1313-1318AD, British Museum, 1948,1211,0.25.
Steatite Icon of Saint Demetrios as an archer, Byzantine Thessalonika, early 14th Century. Louvre OA 11219.
Byzantine Mosaic of the Census, Church of the Holy Saviour in Chora, Constantinople, 1315-1321AD
A Byzantine Style Fresco in the Church of Saint George at Anidri, Crete, Greece, 1323AD
Byzantine Style Soldiers in the Betrayal, Panaghia of Roussospiti, Crete, early 14th century
Soldiers in a fresco of The Betrayal, Church of Aghios Sotir in Potamies, Byzantine, early 14th century
A Byzantine flag in La Conquête de Constantinople, by Geoffroi de Villehardouin, Venice, c.1330
March (Aries) as a mounted warrior in Typikon, Byzantine Trebizond, Vatopedi Cod. 1199, 1346AD
Barlaam and Joasaph, Byzantine, BnF Ms. Grec 1128, 14th century AD
Byzantine Mosaic Icon with Saint Demetrios and Reliquary, c.14th century. Museo Civico, Sassaferrato, Italy.
Byzantine Mural of Unknown Saint in the Church of Saint Athanasius, Geraki, Morea, Greece, 14th century
A Byzantine Fresco of the Betrayal. Church of Taxiarhion. Holy Monastery of St Mary Kastrianon, Old Pyli, Kos, Greece. 14th century
Soldier in spangenhelm on a fragment of a steatite relief icon, Byzantine, 14th century, British Museum 1857,1211.1
A Byzantine Fresco of the Betrayal by Ioannis Pagomenos. Church of the Dormition of the Mother of God, Alikampos, Greece. 14th century.
Peter Denies Christ / Christ before Pilate. Fresco in Zemen Monastery, Pernik Region, c.1354-60AD.
Byzantine style soldiers in frescoes in the Church of Panagia Phorbiotissa, Asinou, Cyprus, 3rd qtr 14th century
Byzantine Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos presiding over a synod, The Hesychast Council of Constantinople, 1351. BnF grec 1242, 1370-75
Seal of the Pansebastos, Sebastos and Megalodiermeneutes of the Varangians, Michael. Byzantine, Palaiologian period.
The Romance of Alexander by Pseudo-Callisthenes, Byzantine Trebizond, Instittuto Ellenico di Venezia codex 5, 14th century
14th century Slavic manuscript of the Constantine Manasses Chronicle
A Mace in a Byzantine Style Fresco of Three Mounted Saints, Monastery of Diskouri at Mylopotamos in Crete, Greece, late 14th century AD.
Byzantine Mural of Unknown Saint in Saint George Church at Vavila, 14th century to early 15th century
Icon of Saint Demetrios of Salonika portrayed as a warrior. Byzantine, c.1400. The Temple Gallery D004.
Icon of Saint Demetrios of Salonika portrayed as a warrior. Byzantine, c.1400. Museum of Applied Arts, Belgrade.
The Betrayal, Mural in Agios Georgios, Artos, Crete, c.1401AD
The Betrayal, Mural in Aghios Georgios, Missolourgaki, Crete, 1401AD
Equestrian portrait of Constantine on a gold medal, by Antonio Pisano (Pisanello), Italy, 1402
Portrait of Manuel II Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor, Constantinople, c.1407. Supplément grec 309, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris.
The Robe, Boots and Bow of Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaeologus, by Antonio Pisanello, Italy, 1438
Byzantine Icons painted by Angelos Akotantos, Venetian Crete, 2nd Quarter of the 15th Century
Source for 'Cretan guardsman' in The Varangian Guard 988-1453 (Men-at-Arms 459) by Raffaele D'Amato
Medal of Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaeologus, by Antonio Pisanello, Italy, 1438-1442
Wallpainting of Manuel Laskaris Chatzikes, c.1445, Pantanassa, Mistras, Laconia, Greece
Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaeologus on the Filarete Door, by Antonio Averuline known as Filarete, St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, Italy, 1445
Post Byzantine Soldiers on Murals in Ayios Nikolaos, Vevi, Western Macedonia, 15th Century
Byzantine Soldiers on a Tomb in Hagia Sophia, Trebizond, 15th century
Frescoes in the church of Agia Paraskevi, Geroskipou, Cyprus, 15th century
Byzantine Soldier in a Fresco, Church of the Brontochion, Mistra, Peloponnese, Greece, after 1449AD
Frescoes by Philip Goul in the Church of the Holy Cross, Platanistasa, Cyprus, 15th century
Fresco of the Crucifixion by Philip Goul, in the Church of St Mammas, Louvaras, Cyprus, 15th century
Frescoes of the 'Legend of the True Cross' by Piero Della Francesca, San Francesco, Arezzo, Italy, 1452-1466AD
Venetian, Cretan, Byzantine, Mamluk, Negro & Ottoman Soldiers on 'The Crucifixion', by Andreas Pavias, Crete, second half of the 15th century
Cassone with painted front panel called the 'Conquest of Trebizond', Florence, Italy, c.1461–1465.
Christ Bearing the Cross, by Nicolaos Tzafouris, Crete, second half of the 15th century.



Index of Illustrations of Costume and Soldiers

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